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How the pyramids of Giza were built

How the pyramids of Giza were built

Thousands of years ago, when the ancient Egyptians built the three pyramids of Giza, each of which is owned by one of the three pharaohs Khufu, Khafra and Menkra; the cameras were not yet invented. Therefore, scientists had to discover how these monuments were built; Over the past two decades, a series of new disclosures and studies have allowed researchers to draw a clearer picture of these great works in their minds.

Giza pyramids 

The pharaoh Khufu, who began his reign in 2551 BC, was the first of the pyramids and the largest of them. His pyramid, which today stands at 138 meters high, is known as the Great Pyramid and is considered one of the wonders of the world.
 The pyramid of Khafra, which began its reign in the year 2520 BC. Smaller than the pyramid of Khufu by a small amount, but was established at a higher level, many scientists believe that Khafra is a builder of the Sphinx, which stands close to the pyramid of Khafra, and that the face The Sphinx is only a representation of the pharaoh Khafre, while the pharaoh of the third pyramid is Menkera who began his reign in the year 2490 BC. He chose to pyramid to be a small height of 65 meters.

Over the past two decades, the researchers have investigated several pyramids-related discoveries, including the discovery of a city built near the Menkera pyramid, a study showing how water can facilitate the movement of stone blocks, and papyrus found near the Red Sea. These discoveries allowed researchers to have a better understanding of how to build The pyramids of Giza, along with ancient knowledge formed over the past two decades.

The evolution of construction methods

The techniques used to build the pyramids have evolved over centuries, facing all the problems and failures that any modern scientist or architect might face.

The pyramids emerged from the simple model of the mausoleum, a tall rectangle built from the surface of the earth with a flat surface and sloping sides. It was used in antiquity to be the last resting place of some pharaohs, especially the pharaohs of the First and Second Families, based on the discoveries of archaeologist Sir Flinders Petrie . During the reign of Pharaoh Zoser, who began his reign in the year 2630 BC, there was a major advance in construction. His tomb in the village of Saqqara was initially a simple, rectangular structure, before it developed into a six-layer pyramid with underground tunnels and rooms.
During the Phnom Penh era, which began around 2575 BC, another leap took place in construction techniques. At least this pharaoh built three pyramids. Instead of building pyramids, the Sanfero architects developed methods for designing pyramids with polished roofs, real pyramids In the mathematical sense.But it seems that the architects of Sinfero faced several problems, one of the pyramids built in the village of Dahshour slanted, and this pyramid is known today as the "slant pyramid" Vzawtho change as we ascended to the top, grille on the structure of the pyramid a curved appearance as in the picture below, which may be Due to the weighting of scientists to a defect in design.
 Senefro and his engineers apparently benefited from their experience with the oblique pyramid, overcoming this imbalance with their second pyramid in the village of Dahshour, now known as the Red Pyramid, in relation to its red-colored stone, which rises at a fixed angle of Milan to be considered a physical pyramid in the mathematical sense.
In the footsteps of his father Senefro Sarr son Khufu, in the light of the lessons he learned from his father and ancestors built the "Great Pyramid" to be truly the largest pyramid in the world.

Pyramids Planning


The Pharaohs appointed a high ranking official to officially oversee the construction of the pyramid. In 2010, a team of archaeologists discovered a papyrus that dated back to the reign of Khufu in Wadi al-Jarf near the Dead Sea. According to papyrus texts, in the twenty-seventh year of the Khufu era, the brother of the pharaoh was half brother, A prestigious rank in ancient Egypt) and the head of all king's works. Archaeologist Berry Talt and Gregory Marward told Near Eastern Archeology.

While the writings of papyrus indicate responsibility for fear in the twenty-seventh year of Pharaoh Khufu, many scientists believe that another person, perhaps the minister (Ham Ayuno) was responsible for building the pyramid during the early period of the Khufu era.
At present, the researchers are trying to understand the sophisticated planning used in the construction, not only in the pyramids, but in the construction of the temples, sunbathing and tombs near this monumental edifice. They also noticed that the ancient Egyptians had the ability to control the building and direct it to the north with infinite precision , Which may be a virtue in planning pyramids. One of the engineers studying Glen Dash noted that Khufu's pyramid is oriented north with a margin of error of 10 degrees. It is still unclear how the old people achieved this achievement. Dash recently noted in a report published in the syndicate newsletter that the presence of a polar star, Polar along with a set of cords may have helped them achieve this.

Food and supplies


Over the past years, archaeologists have been excavating a port in Giza that may have been used for food supplies and human resources. The papyrus text found in Wadi al-Jarf confirms the importance of Giza ports. The building blocks of limestone used in the outer cover For the pyramid, shipped from its quarries to the location of the pyramid within a few days depending on the boat means of transport.
The port discovered by the union is located near the town of Bennett, which is adjacent to the pyramid of Menqra. The town contained magnificent houses or high-ranking employees, a barracks complex for barracks, buildings that held huge quantities of clay seals to keep records. The workers were probably sleeping in simple dwellings near the pyramid site. Most archaeologists estimate the amount of work force in Giza among 10,000 people for the three pyramids combined. It is worth mentioning that workers, unlike the popular image, received good nutrition. In a study by Richard Redding, head of research at the union, and his colleagues in 2013, Redding compared the remains of animal bones discovered in Giza to the natural dietary requirements of a man who worked hard to reach this discovery. Redding also discovered that the animals came Out of The diet of meat-rich workers is a catalyst for people to work in the construction of the pyramids. Redding says these workers enjoyed far better food and food than they used to do in their villages.

Extraction of stones


Many of the stones used in the pyramid of Khufu were extracted from a quarry resembling the horseshoe in the south of the pyramid. As for the pyramid of Manqra, the workers used stones from a quarry located south or southeast of the pyramid of Menqra.When the pyramids were nearing completion, each was provided with a smooth limestone exterior. A small part of this envelope is still visible, and part of it has been reused for other building projects in Egypt over the past thousands of years.
The papyrus discovered in Wadi Al-Jarf stated that the limestone used in the packing was cut from a quarry located in the Toura near Cairo and was shipped to Giza via a boat sailing through the Nile and a series of canals, for a journey of an average of four days.

Transportation of stone blocks


In order to move stones on land, ancient Egyptians used large sleds that could be pushed or pulled by large groups of workers. A team of physicists from the University of Amsterdam found in a study published in 2014 in the journal "physical review letters" Mostly hydrated, in order to reduce friction and facilitate movement.

It has become clear to us that moisturizing the Egyptian sand can reduce the friction slightly, so we need only half the number of workers required to pull the sled on wet sand, compared to the dry sand, says the professor of physics from the University of Amsterdam Daniel Bonn. Scientists say the scenes in the works show that water is flowing in front of the skis.Most Egyptian scientists agree that when the stones reached the Pyramids, a system of stairs was used to lift them up. However, it was not clear how these stairs were designed, because only a few of the evidence indicating these stairs survived to this day. Have been proposed over the past decades.Today, we may receive new data from the Scan Pyramids Mission. Currently, for the project, scientists are examining and re-representing the construction of the Pyramids in Giza

عن الكاتب

Tony Fares Tony Owner of Alekhbarion Site
http://alekhbarion.blogspot.com

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